The most common cancer types in childhood and adolescence are:

  1. Acute leukemia
  2. Tumors of the central nervous system
  3. Lymphoma
  4. Tumors of the kidney
  5. Neuroblastomas
  6. Bone tumors
  7. Soft tissue cancer
  8. Retinoblastoma (cancer of the eye)

In leukemias, invasions of malignant cells occur in the bone marrow. The child gets subject to infections, has bleeding and feels bone pain. In retinoblastoma an important sign is the "cat's eye reflex", the pupil whitening when exposed to light. In this case, it is possible to identify in many situations photophobia (exaggerated sensitivity to light) or strabismus (squinting). This condition usually affects children before age 3.

In relation to the increased volume or appearance of mass in the abdomen as the Wilms tumor, affects the kidneys, thorax and pelvis, for example. Those that originate in the bones (osteosarcoma) are solid tumors and may be manifested by visible or not visible mass, causing pain in the limbs and in most cases it is more common in adolescents. Those who are located in the central nervous system (brain) in addition to causing headaches, vomiting, motor alterations, exhibit behavioral changes and paralysis of nerves.

NOTE: These signs and symptoms may be related to cancer, but they do not exactly mean that your child has it. The child or adolescent should be consulted as soon as possible by a pediatrician.